Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) have a 100-fold increased risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). We prospectively evaluated the association between ß genus human papillomaviruses (ßPV) and keratinocyte carcinoma in OTRs. Two OTR cohorts without cSCC were assembled: cohort 1 was transplanted in 2003-2006 (n = 274) and cohort 2 was transplanted in 1986-2002 (n = 352). Participants were followed until death or cessation of follow-up in 2016. ßPV infection was assessed in eyebrow hair by using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. ßPV IgG seroresponses were determined with multiplex serology. A competing risk model with delayed entry was used to estimate cumulative incidence of histologically proven cSCC and the effect of ßPV by using a multivariable Cox regression model. Results are reported as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). OTRs with 5 or more different ßPV types in eyebrow hair had 1.7 times the risk of cSCC vs OTRs with 0 to 4 different types (HR 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.6). A similar risk was seen with high ßPV loads (HR 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.8). No significant associations were seen between serum antibodies and cSCC or between ßPV and basal cell carcinoma. The diversity and load of ßPV types in eyebrow hair are associated with cSCC risk in OTRs, providing evidence that ßPV is associated with cSCC carcinogenesis and may present a target for future preventive strategies.
|Authors||Bouwes Bavinck, Jan N; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; Green, Adele C; Fiocco, Marta; Euvrard, Sylvie; Harwood, Catherine A; Proby, Charlotte M; Naldi, Luigi; Diphoorn, Janouk C D; Venturuzzo, Anna; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Nindl, Ingo; Sampogna, Francesca; Abeni, Damiano; Neale, Rachel E; Goeman, Jelle J; Quint, Koen D; Halk, Anne B; Sneek, Carmen; Genders, Roel E; de Koning, Maurits N C; Quint, Wim G V; Wieland, Ulrike; Weissenborn, Sönke; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Pfister, Herbert; ,|
|Journal||AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION|
|Funding Body||EU 5FP Collaborative Research|