The human RAD51 recombinase possesses DNA pairing and strand exchange activities that are essential for the error-free, homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The recombination activities of RAD51 are activated upon its assembly into presynaptic filaments on single-stranded DNA at resected DSB ends. Defects in filament assembly caused by mutations in RAD51 or its regulators such as BRCA2 are associated with human cancer. Here we describe two novel RAD51 missense variants located in the multimerization/BRCA2 binding region of RAD51. F86L is a breast tumor-derived somatic variant that affects the interface between adjacent RAD51 protomers in the presynaptic filament. E258A is a germline variant that maps to the interface region between the N-terminal and RecA homology domains of RAD51. Both variants exhibit abnormal biochemistry including altered DNA strand exchange activity. Both variants inhibit the DNA strand exchange activity of wild type RAD51, suggesting a mechanism for negative dominance. The inhibitory effect of F86L on wild-type RAD51 is surprising since F86L alone exhibits robust DNA strand exchange activity. Our findings indicate that even DNA strand exchange-proficient variants can have negative functional interactions with wild-type RAD51. Thus heterozygous F86L or E258 mutations in RAD51 could promote genomic instability, and thereby contribute to tumor progression.
|Authors||Silva, Michelle C.; Bryan, Katie E.; Morrical, Milagros D.; Averill, April M.; Dragon, Julie; Wiegmans, Adrian P.; Morrical, Scott W.|
|Funding Body||National Institutes of Health|